- n. 长钉，道钉；钉鞋；细高跟
- vt. 阻止；以大钉钉牢；用尖物刺穿
- n. (Spike)人名；(瑞典)斯皮克
TEM4 IELTS GRE
可能来自中古瑞典语 spijk,钉子，来自 Proto-Germanic*spikaz,钉子，来自 PIE*spei,尖刺，尖 头，词源同 spire,spoke,pin.词义麦穗来自该印欧词根衍生的拉丁语 spica,麦穗，穗状花序。
- spike: English has two etymologically distinct words spike, although they are so similar in meaning that they are commonly regarded as one and the same. Spike ‘long sharp piece’  was probably borrowed from Middle Dutch spīker. It has another relative in Swedish spik ‘nail’, and goes back ultimately to prehistoric Germanic *speik-, *spaik- (source also of English spoke).
The spick of spick and span  is a variant of spike. The expression is an elaboration of an earlier span-new ‘brand-new’, which was borrowed from Old Norse spánnýr ‘as new as a new chip of wood’ (spánn ‘chip’ is related to English spoon, which originally meant ‘chip’). The spick was added in imitation of Dutch spiksplinter nieuw ‘spike-splinter new’. Spike ‘ear of corn, arrangement of flowers on a stalk similar to this’  was borrowed from Latin spīca, a close relative of spīna ‘thorn’ (source of English spine). Spīca is also ultimately responsible for English spigot , perhaps via the diminutive spiculum; and it forms the first syllable of spikenard , the name of a sort of ancient aromatic ointment or of the plant that probably produced it.
=> spick; spigot, spine, spoke
- spike (v.)
- 1620s, "to fasten with spikes," from spike (n.1). Meaning "to rise in a spike" is from 1958. Military sense (1680s) means "to disable guns by driving a large nail into the touch-hole." Figurative use of this sense is from 1823. Meaning "to lace (a drink) with liquor" is from 1889. Journalism sense of "to kill a story before publication" (1908) is from the metal spindle in which old-time editors filed hard copy of stories after they were set in type, or especially when rejected for publication. Related: Spiked; spiking.
- spike (n.1)
- "large nail," mid-14c., perhaps from or related to a Scandinavian word, such as Old Norse spik "splinter," Middle Swedish spijk "nail," from Proto-Germanic *spikaz (cognates: Middle Dutch spicher, Dutch spijker "nail," Old English spicing "large nail," Old English spaca, Old High German speihha "spoke"), from PIE root *spei- "sharp point" (cognates: Latin spica "ear of corn," spina "thorn, prickle, backbone," and perhaps pinna "pin" (see pin (n.)); Greek spilas "rock, cliff;" Lettish spile "wooden fork;" Lithuanian speigliai "thorns," spitna "tongue of a buckle," Old English spitu "spit").
The English word also might be influenced by and partly a borrowing of Latin spica (see spike (n.2)), from the same root. Slang meaning "needle" is from 1923. Meaning "pointed stud in athletic shoes" is from 1832. Electrical sense of "pulse of short duration" is from 1935.
- spike (n.2)
- "ear of grain," c. 1300, from Latin spica "ear of grain," from PIE *spei-ko-, from suffixed form of root *spei- "sharp point" (see spine).
- 1. There is a lengthy article on Spike Milligan in the Observer newspaper.
- 2. Spike Milligan has finally got the gong he had been promised.
- 3. A spike is quicker than a slam.
- 4. Her first major role was in Martin Scorsese's "Goodfellas" and she followed this with a part in Spike Lee's "Jungle Fever".
- 5. Although you'd think business would have boomed during the war, there was only a small spike in interest.
[ spike 造句 ]