- vt. 持有；拥有；保存；拘留；约束或控制
- vi. 支持；有效；持续
- n. 控制；保留
- n. (Hold)人名；(英、德、捷)霍尔德
- [ 过去式 held 过去分词 held或holden 现在分词 holding ]
CET4 IELTS GRE 考 研 CET6
- hold: Hold ‘grasp, clasp’ [OE] and hold ‘cargo store’  are not the same word. The verb goes back to a prehistoric Germanic source which meant ‘watch, guard’. This ancestral sense is preserved in the derivative behold [OE], but the simple verb hold, together with its relatives German halten (source of English halt), Dutch houden, Swedish hålla, and Danish holde, has moved on via ‘keep’ to ‘have in the hands’. The cargo hold, on the other hand, is simply an alteration (influenced by the verb hold) of an earlier hole or holl – which was either the English word hole or a borrowing of its Dutch relative hol.
=> behold, halt; hole
- hold (v.)
- Old English haldan (Anglian), healdan (West Saxon), "to contain, grasp; retain; foster, cherish," class VII strong verb (past tense heold, past participle healden), from Proto-Germanic *haldan (cognates: Old Saxon haldan, Old Frisian halda, Old Norse halda, Dutch houden, German halten "to hold," Gothic haldan "to tend"), originally "to keep, tend, watch over" (as cattle), later "to have." Ancestral sense is preserved in behold. The original past participle holden was replaced by held beginning 16c., but survives in some legal jargon and in beholden.
Hold back is 1530s, transitive; 1570s, intransitive; hold off is early 15c., transitive; c. 1600, intransitive; hold out is 1520s as "to stretch forth," 1580s as "to resist pressure." Hold on is early 13c. as "to maintain one's course," 1830 as "to keep one's grip on something," 1846 as an order to wait or stop. To hold (one's) tongue "be silent" is from c. 1300. To hold (one's) own is from early 14c. To hold (someone's) hand "give moral support" is from 1935. Phrase hold your horses "be patient" is from 1844. To have and to hold have been paired alliteratively since at least c. 1200, originally of marriage but also of real estate.
- hold (n.2)
- "space in a ship below the lower deck, in which cargo is stowed," 15c. corruption in the direction of hold (v.) of Old English hol "hole" (see hole), influenced by Middle Dutch hol "hold of a ship," and Middle English hul, which originally meant both "the hold" and "the hull" of a ship (see hull). Or possibly from Old English holu "husk, pod." All from PIE *kel- "to cover, conceal."
- hold (n.1)
- "act of holding," c. 1100; "grasp, grip," c. 1200, from Old English geheald (Anglian gehald) "keeping, custody, guard; watch, protector, guardian," from hold (v.). Meaning "place of refuge" is from c. 1200; "fortified place" is from c. 1300; "place of imprisonment" is from late 14c. Wrestling sense is from 1713. No holds barred "with all restrictions removed" is first recorded 1942 in theater jargon but is ultimately from wrestling. Telephoning sense is from c. 1964, from expression hold the line, warning that one is away from the receiver, 1912.
- 1. He struggled to hold the bike down on the banked corners.
- 2. It is hard to get hold of guns in this country.
- 3. They can't believe you can even hold a conversation.
- 4. The country will hold democratic elections within a year.
- 5. They're likely to hold big fire sales to liquidate their inventory.
[ hold 造句 ]